Following ENVSEC assessments the three main groups of issues as relevant to environmental and security issues in the Region are identified:
Access to and quality of natural resources (primarily water and land, but also forest and more generally biodiversity resources);
Existing or potential pollution from industrial facilities, hazardous and radioactive waste sites;
And cross-cutting issues such as natural disasters, climate change, public health, environmental governance, public participation and access to information.
Environmental scarcity arising either when the quality and quantity of renewable resources decreases (supply-induced scarcity), the population increases (demand-induced scarcity), and/or when resource access becomes more unequal (structural scarcity) (Homer-Dixon, 1999 in ENVSEC 2011).
Environmental scarcity, in turn, can produce five types of social effects: constrained agricultural productivity; constrained economic productivity; migration of affected people; greater segmentation of society, usually along existing ethnic cleavages; and disruption of institutions, especially the state (in Marais et al., 2003: 14 in ENVSEC 2011).
Ecological marginalization when unequal resource access and population growth combine to drive further degradation of renewable resources (ENVSEC, 2011).
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